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AgatewareAgateware was made in England between 1725 and 1750, the earlier pottery was salt glazed, while the later were just covered with a colorless lead glaze.
The pottery was made by mixing different colored clays or different colors of slip.
In the first method the different colored clays are usually laid in slabs, one on top of the other and beaten out to form a very big mound of clay in which the colors are mixed all together.
The other method is easier to combine because it is basically clay mixed with water, making it very easy to pour.
The different colors are poured together, but it is not mixed, instead a stick is pulled through maybe in a figure eight and then the slip is poured in a mold.
BasaltSometimes called Black Basalt, also spelled Basaltes.
It is a hard black glass like stoneware named after the volcanic rock basalt and manufactured by Josiah Wedgwood from about 1768.
Wedgwood's black basalt pottery was an improvement on the stained earthenware known as Egyptian black made by other Staffordshire potters.
Black basalt barrel pot
Bisque WareBisque or biscuit porcelain is simply the pottery once it has been fired without the addition of glaze.
Bisque figures and groups were popular in the United States in the 18th century and in England the Derby factory produced nice examples around 1770.
At that time a piece of unglazed pottery was more expensive than the same piece which had been glazed and colored mainly because the unglazed bisque pieces had to be perfect in every aspect.
Glaze covers a multitude of defects. Several early 19th century factories produced charming biscuit figures, groups and animals until the new creamy colored Parian body became fashionable in the 1840's.
Cauliflower WareCreamware was modeled and glazed in green and yellow to simulate a cauliflower and the term also applied to other fruit or vegetable forms.
About 1760, William Greatbach did the potting and modeling of cauliflower tureens, cabbage bowls, lettuce pots, pineapple teapots and stands which was sublet to him by Josiah Wedgwood, and when done, were then returned to Wedgwood for glazing.
Production was busy and was often copied by other english pottery workers, but it kinda died out after 1769 when Wedgwood's new Etruria works was opened.
The cabbage or cauliflower spout, however, is a molded detail still used by Wedgwood today.
The Rococo style of plant forms can be seen in the many Chelsea dishes and small tureens of the 1750s in the form of cauliflowers and cabbages as well as melon, quince, cucumber, and lemon tureens, very rare in Wedgwood-Greatbach pottery.
Creamware was a cream colored English earthenware of the second half of the 18th century.
DelftDelftware, tin-glazed earthenware first made in Delft, Holland, in the early 17th century and was later produced in Holland and England.
Heavily influenced by Ming dynasty porcelain, delftware was notable for its thinness and fine decoration, often of manganese purple drawn on the clay before firing with a blue under glaze.
Patterns varied from highly successful imitations of Chinese blue and white pottery to French influenced classical motifs and designers tended to fill the white areas of the pottery rather than leaving them empty like the Chinese potters did.
Production spread to England after William III became king of England in 1689 resulting in many royal commissions.
The principal centers for English delftware production were London, Liverpool, Bristol, and Dublin in Ireland.
The 17th century was the greatest age of delftware and production continued well into the 18th century but was gradually replaced by porcelain, especially the English creamwares developed by Josiah Wedgwood.
Dutch Delft 18th c. Vase.
EarthenwareEarthenware is pottery made from clay which has not been fired to the point of changing to glass and is therefore slightly porous after the first firing.
It is made waterproof by the application of a clear glaze which is a liquid clay mixed with tin and applied before the second firing.
For both practical and decorative reasons earthenware is usually glazed.
Earthenware, because it is fired at a low temperature, readily absorbs water if not glazed and does not allow light to pass through it.
Coarse earthenware is made from clay and grog which is ground up fired earthenware.
It is the color of the clay as it is dug from the ground, which is buff, brown or red.
A modern earthenware recipe would be:25% ball clay
25% china clay
15% china stone
FiringThe first or biscuit firing temperature is 2012º F to 2102º F glost firing 1922º F to 2012º F.
Just about all ancient, medieval, Middle Eastern and European painted ceramics are earthenware, as is a great deal of modern household dinnerware.
To overcome its porosity, which makes it impossible for storing liquids in its unglazed state, the bisque fired object is covered with finely ground glass powder suspended in water known as glaze and is then fired a second time.
During the firing the fine particles covering the surface fuse into a shapeless, glasslike layer, sealing the pores of the clay body.
There are two main types of glazed earthenware:
One is covered with a transparent lead glaze, and when the earthenware body to which this glaze is applied has a cream color the product is called creamware.
The second type covered with an opaque white tin glaze is called tin enameled, tin glazed, earthenware, majolica, faience or delft.
A distinctive glaze which Royal Doulton made use of and which consisted of a rich deep red glaze slashed with streaks of purple or turquoise and was used to decorate pottery, particularly porcelain.
This Flambé effect results from a particular method of firing a glaze that has copper combined with it and was first discovered by the Chinese of the Ming dynasty, probably during the reign of Wan-li which was from 1573 to1620.
Examples of this old flambé work are now extremely rare.
The process was at first difficult to control, but by the reign of Ch'ien-lung which was about 1736 to 1796 in the Ch'ing dynasty, it had been mastered and ch'ui hung or blown red glaze ware as flambé work was called, became very popular.
The porcelain factory at Sèvres France produced a quite a bit of flambé work in the late 19th century.
The process was started again in modern times by individual potters, notably Bernard Moore in England, who worked at the beginning of the 20th century.
Doulton Flambe Fox
This Royal Doulton Flambe' Rhinoceros is a very hard piece to obtain.
The marbling effect on this piece is exquisite.
It measures approx. 9 1/2 inches tall and approx. 13 1/2 inches long.
Designer Leslie Harradine.
The rhino is one of the four very fine 'Rouge Flambe' models,
introduced in 1970.
The rhinoceros is a worthy successor to Noke's elephant.
IronstoneIronstone china is a hard white earthenware, sometimes slightly transparent but very strong.
Ironstone was first patented in 1813 by Charles Mason as a cheap alternative to porcelain.
A type of stoneware introduced in England early in the 19th century by the english potters who looked for a substitute for porcelain that could be mass produced for the cheaper market.
The result of their experiments was a dense, hard and durable stoneware that came to be known by several names such as semi porcelain, opaque porcelain, English porcelain, stone china and new stone, all of which were used to describe essentially the same product.
The production of ironstone in both countries was more efficient, and the demand for the pottery continued throughout the rest of the nineteenth century.
Although fine china was thought to be more desirable, the sturdy and less expensive ironstone was favored for everyday use.
Because of its sturdiness, durability, and popularity in rural areas, it was sometimes labeled thresher’s china or farmer’s china.
Today, ironstone is admired and collected for its natural beauty as well as its practicality.
Tables are set with gleaming white ironstone and magazines featured homes with prominent displays of the ceramic ware that was once considered common.
JackfieldJackfield is the common name for a class of earthenware decorated with a glossy black glaze.
Traditionally this type of pottery was made at Jackfield, near Coalport in Shropshire, England, but excavations and other evidence suggest that such pieces were also made in Staffordshire and at other ceramic centers in the 18th century.
This is a pair of Jackfield spaniels that measure 13 inches.
Jackfield was made in the 1800's during the Victorian era.
It is red clay covered with a black enamel.
Jackfield cow creamer, made in England, 1850-70,
red clay, painted black with gilt highlight;
tail is up and resting on his back; horns facing forward.
JasperA type of fine-grained, unglazed stoneware introduced by the English potter Josiah Wedgwood in 1775 as the result of a long series of experiments aimed at discovering the techniques of porcelain manufacturing.
Its name comes from the fact that it resembles the natural stone jasper in its hardness.
Jasperware - a durable unglazed porcelain
most characteristically blue with
fine white cameo figures inspired
by the ancient Roman Portland Vase.
Jasper is white in its natural state and is stained with metallic oxide coloring agents.
The most common shade is pale blue, but dark blue, lilac, sage green, black, and yellow were also used.
The earliest jasper was stained throughout and was known as solid, whereas the later varieties were colored only on the surface and were known as dip.
Decorations, in the Roman style and usually white, were made in separate molds and applied to the body of the piece.
Objects made of jasper were varied and included vases, plaques, tableware, cameos, furniture mounts, and portrait medallions.
The finest examples of the medallions were modeled by the English sculptor John Flaxman and by Wedgwood's principal modeler, William Hackwood. Outstanding are Wedgwood's 1790 reproductions in jasper of the Portland Vase which was excavated from a tomb outside Rome in the early 17th century and one of which is now in the British Museum in London.
Jasperware is still produced by Wedgwood's in England today.
The familiar densely uniform stone ware in solid colors decorated in a contrasting hue was Josiah Wedgwood's most important contribution to ceramic art
Because of the popularity of the combination of a solid blue base with white relief ornamentation, the beginning collector identifies that color combination as Jasper, when in fact the pure jasper body is white
Cameos, designs carved into metal or stone, and small busts were produced. Vases, plaques and bough pots were crafted of the new material.
The crowning achievement and one that sealed jasperware as the most sought after decorative pottery in England and the United States was his reproduction of the famous Portland Vase in 1790 after four years of labor intensive trials.
THE IMITATORSThe importance of his discovery and the popularity of his designs produced a bunch of imitators seeking to capitalize on the new range.
Adams was the ware that most resembled Wedgwood's in all but color.
Others whose quality approached the original were Palmer, Wilson Neal and Hollins.
In the United States, Sevres brought out a range of blue porcelain decorated in white and Meissen brought out a range of blue porcelain with the necessary cast white embossing named Wedgwoodarbeit, literally Wedgewood Work.
The flattery of the imitators was certainly sincere.
RESUMPTION OF PRODUCTIONAfter Josiah's death in 1795 jasper pottery was at the height of fashion. By 1811 its popularity was starting to slow and the production of jasper products tailed off.
By 1817 vases were no longer being produced and by 1829 production in jasper had virtually ceased but experimentation continued.
In 1844 production resumed using jasper as a dip and for applied decoration to a new white porcelain body.
Solid jasper was not manufactured again until 1860 and even then the Wedgwood grandsons considered their new attempts as inferior to the Old Wedgwood produced by their grandfather.
Jasper production did not stop again until 1941 and World War II forced its abandonment.
Production started again in 1948 with a new combination of ingredients that more closely resembled Josiah's original.
Since that time production of newly designed jasper pieces has fueled the collectable market.
Christmas and Mother's day plates have been an example of marketing aimed directly at the collector.
LusterwareLusterware is earthenware with an opaque white tin glaze, fired once, then painted with metallic pigments and refired in a reduction kiln.
The designs reflected metallic hues of red, bronze, lime and yellow.
When potters migrated from Iraq to the western Muslim world in the 10th century, the luster technique moved with them.
As with tin glazes, lusterware ultimately influenced Europe by way of Moorish Spain.
Luster decorated earthenwares and porcelains come in many forms, the most common being the copper lustre, produced from gold.
This often completely covers the item.
Silver luster was also used in the same manner.
Other luster effects were also used, one type being built up by one or two washes of luster forming the scenic or other motif.
An elegant lustreware and handpainted fine porcelain by Chikaramachi sugar and cream set with handled tray.
Beautifully decorated in blue and cream color with a floral design.
Marked Chikamarachi with a crown and laurel wreath, and the words Made in Japan.
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