Pottery Magic Home   Weekly Letter Mail List

Pottery Magic Small Goblets

Pottery
Articles of Interest
Identifying Pottery Types



Follow My 40 Day Pottery Challenge

Becca's Montana Girl Blog

Pottery Videos

Pottery and Ceramic Tools

Tools for Pottery

Pottery Magic Wand

Tips & Techniques
for Pottery and Ceramics


Pottery and Ceramic Projects

Clay Pottery Craft Projects

Pottery Magic Wand

Clay Pottery
Articles of Interest

Pottery and Ceramic History

Old Time Pottery History

Pottery Magic Wand

Pottery and Ceramics

Featured Potters Gallery


Pottery and Ceramics Definitions

Pottery and Ceramics
Definitions


Pottery Magic Wand

All About The Clay

Glazes and Decorating Pottery

All About Pottery Glazes

Fascination With Pottery
Differences Between Pottery and Ceramics
Identifying Pottery Treasures
Pottery Identification
Dating Pottery
Types Of Pottery
Selecting Pottery Supplies
Works of Famous Potters
Pottery and Ceramic Hangtags
Registration Marks
Ceramic Lose

United States Pottery Marks
A Thru C

United States Pottery Marks
C Thru L

United States Pottery Marks
L Thru R

Pottery and Ceramic Trademarks
Some Things I Wish I Had Done From The Start!
What is Pottery Used For?
Pottery Signature Stamps
Recognizing Pottery Defects

Planting Your Pottery
Incredible Paperclay
Choosing the Perfect Pot
Fired Arts, Find Out More
The Legend of the Willow Plate
The Willow Poem
Facination with Horsehair
Ceramic Earthenware Pottery Care
Pottery Photography
Therapeautic Pottery for Children
Landscaping with Pottery








Agateware

Agateware was made in England between 1725 and 1750, the earlier pottery was salt glazed, while the later were just covered with a colorless lead glaze.
The pottery was made by mixing different colored clays or different colors of slip.
In the first method the different colored clays are usually laid in slabs, one on top of the other and beaten out to form a very big mound of clay in which the colors are mixed all together.
The other method is easier to combine because it is basically clay mixed with water, making it very easy to pour.
The different colors are poured together, but it is not mixed, instead a stick is pulled through maybe in a figure eight and then the slip is poured in a mold.

Agateware Vase can be found at http://www.fusionpottery.com/ Agateware Sauseboat

Basalt

Sometimes called Black Basalt, also spelled Basaltes.
It is a hard black glass like stoneware named after the volcanic rock basalt and manufactured by Josiah Wedgwood from about 1768.

Black Basalt

Wedgwood's black basalt pottery was an improvement on the stained earthenware known as Egyptian black made by other Staffordshire potters.

Black Basalt Teapot made to resemble a barrel wrapped in vines.

Black basalt barrel pot

Bisque Ware

Bisque or biscuit porcelain is simply the pottery once it has been fired without the addition of glaze.

Fired bisque in the kiln

Bisque figures and groups were popular in the United States in the 18th century and in England the Derby factory produced nice examples around 1770.
At that time a piece of unglazed pottery was more expensive than the same piece which had been glazed and colored mainly because the unglazed bisque pieces had to be perfect in every aspect.
Glaze covers a multitude of defects. Several early 19th century factories produced charming biscuit figures, groups and animals until the new creamy colored Parian body became fashionable in the 1840's.

Parian bisque body figure

Cauliflower Ware

Creamware was modeled and glazed in green and yellow to simulate a cauliflower and the term also applied to other fruit or vegetable forms.

About 1760, William Greatbach did the potting and modeling of cauliflower tureens, cabbage bowls, lettuce pots, pineapple teapots and stands which was sublet to him by Josiah Wedgwood, and when done, were then returned to Wedgwood for glazing.
Production was busy and was often copied by other english pottery workers, but it kinda died out after 1769 when Wedgwood's new Etruria works was opened.

The cabbage or cauliflower spout, however, is a molded detail still used by Wedgwood today.
The Rococo style of plant forms can be seen in the many Chelsea dishes and small tureens of the 1750s in the form of cauliflowers and cabbages as well as melon, quince, cucumber, and lemon tureens, very rare in Wedgwood-Greatbach pottery.

Cauliflower Ware by Wedgwood

Cream Ware

Creamware was a cream colored English earthenware of the second half of the 18th century.
English pottery workers were experimenting, trying to find a substitute for Chinese porcelain and in about 1750 they finally produced a fine white earthenware with a rich yellowish glaze which is light in body with a clean glaze and it proved ideal for everyday use.

19th century Scottish creamware, McKay bequest

The cream color was considered a fault at the time and Wedgwood introduced a white to bluish white product called pearl ware in 1779.
It was produced for nearly a century. Creamware, however, continued to be made throughout the 19th century and later.
It was Josiah Wedgwood who made a great commercial success with this cheap everyday pottery which he made in England from about 1762.
Wedgwood also attracted the patronage of Queen Charlotte who allowed him to adopt the name Queen's ware.
His most considerable effort was a creamware dinner service of nine hundred and fifty two pieces supplied to Catherine II the Great of Russia in 1775.

Queensware name for Katherine the Great of Russia

Wedgwood Creamware named for Kahterine the Great

Delft

Delftware, tin-glazed earthenware first made in Delft, Holland, in the early 17th century and was later produced in Holland and England.
Heavily influenced by Ming dynasty porcelain, delftware was notable for its thinness and fine decoration, often of manganese purple drawn on the clay before firing with a blue under glaze.
Patterns varied from highly successful imitations of Chinese blue and white pottery to French influenced classical motifs and designers tended to fill the white areas of the pottery rather than leaving them empty like the Chinese potters did.

Delftware from Holland

Production spread to England after William III became king of England in 1689 resulting in many royal commissions.
The principal centers for English delftware production were London, Liverpool, Bristol, and Dublin in Ireland.

The 17th century was the greatest age of delftware and production continued well into the 18th century but was gradually replaced by porcelain, especially the English creamwares developed by Josiah Wedgwood.

Dutch Delft 18th c. Vase.

Dutch Delft 18th c. Vase.

Earthenware

Earthenware is pottery made from clay which has not been fired to the point of changing to glass and is therefore slightly porous after the first firing.
It is made waterproof by the application of a clear glaze which is a liquid clay mixed with tin and applied before the second firing.
For both practical and decorative reasons earthenware is usually glazed.

Earthenware teapot with bamboo handle

Earthenware, because it is fired at a low temperature, readily absorbs water if not glazed and does not allow light to pass through it.
Coarse earthenware is made from clay and grog which is ground up fired earthenware.
It is the color of the clay as it is dug from the ground, which is buff, brown or red.

Earthenware bowl

A modern earthenware recipe would be:

25% ball clay
25% china clay
35% flint
15% china stone

Firing

The first or biscuit firing temperature is 2012º F to 2102º F glost firing 1922º F to 2012º F.
Just about all ancient, medieval, Middle Eastern and European painted ceramics are earthenware, as is a great deal of modern household dinnerware.
To overcome its porosity, which makes it impossible for storing liquids in its unglazed state, the bisque fired object is covered with finely ground glass powder suspended in water known as glaze and is then fired a second time.
During the firing the fine particles covering the surface fuse into a shapeless, glasslike layer, sealing the pores of the clay body.

There are two main types of glazed earthenware:

One is covered with a transparent lead glaze, and when the earthenware body to which this glaze is applied has a cream color the product is called creamware.

The second type covered with an opaque white tin glaze is called tin enameled, tin glazed, earthenware, majolica, faience or delft.

Flambé

A William Howson Taylor's Ruskin Pottery high fired flambe Vase, with a deep red glaze falling in "curtains" over the stoneware body. Dated 1920.

A distinctive glaze which Royal Doulton made use of and which consisted of a rich deep red glaze slashed with streaks of purple or turquoise and was used to decorate pottery, particularly porcelain.
This Flambé effect results from a particular method of firing a glaze that has copper combined with it and was first discovered by the Chinese of the Ming dynasty, probably during the reign of Wan-li which was from 1573 to1620.
Examples of this old flambé work are now extremely rare.
The process was at first difficult to control, but by the reign of Ch'ien-lung which was about 1736 to 1796 in the Ch'ing dynasty, it had been mastered and ch'ui hung or blown red glaze ware as flambé work was called, became very popular.
The porcelain factory at Sèvres France produced a quite a bit of flambé work in the late 19th century.
The process was started again in modern times by individual potters, notably Bernard Moore in England, who worked at the beginning of the 20th century.



Doulton Flambe Fox



This Royal Doulton Flambe' Rhinoceros is a very hard piece to obtain.
The marbling effect on this piece is exquisite.
It measures approx. 9 1/2 inches tall and approx. 13 1/2 inches long.
Designer Leslie Harradine.
The rhino is one of the four very fine 'Rouge Flambe' models,
introduced in 1970.
The rhinoceros is a worthy successor to Noke's elephant.

Ironstone

Ironstone china is a hard white earthenware, sometimes slightly transparent but very strong.
Ironstone was first patented in 1813 by Charles Mason as a cheap alternative to porcelain.
A type of stoneware introduced in England early in the 19th century by the english potters who looked for a substitute for porcelain that could be mass produced for the cheaper market.
The result of their experiments was a dense, hard and durable stoneware that came to be known by several names such as semi porcelain, opaque porcelain, English porcelain, stone china and new stone, all of which were used to describe essentially the same product.
The production of ironstone in both countries was more efficient, and the demand for the pottery continued throughout the rest of the nineteenth century.
Although fine china was thought to be more desirable, the sturdy and less expensive ironstone was favored for everyday use.
Because of its sturdiness, durability, and popularity in rural areas, it was sometimes labeled thresher’s china or farmer’s china.



Today, ironstone is admired and collected for its natural beauty as well as its practicality.
Tables are set with gleaming white ironstone and magazines featured homes with prominent displays of the ceramic ware that was once considered common.

Jackfield

Jackfield is the common name for a class of earthenware decorated with a glossy black glaze.

Gilt and enameled birds

Traditionally this type of pottery was made at Jackfield, near Coalport in Shropshire, England, but excavations and other evidence suggest that such pieces were also made in Staffordshire and at other ceramic centers in the 18th century.

This is a pair of Jackfield spaniels that measure 13 inches.
Jackfield was made in the 1800's during the Victorian era.
It is red clay covered with a black enamel.
Jackfield Spaniels


Jackfield cow creamer, made in England, 1850-70,
red clay, painted black with gilt highlight;
tail is up and resting on his back; horns facing forward.
Jackfield Cow Creamer

Jasper

A type of fine-grained, unglazed stoneware introduced by the English potter Josiah Wedgwood in 1775 as the result of a long series of experiments aimed at discovering the techniques of porcelain manufacturing.
Its name comes from the fact that it resembles the natural stone jasper in its hardness.

Jasperware

Jasperware - a durable unglazed porcelain
most characteristically blue with
fine white cameo figures inspired
by the ancient Roman Portland Vase.

Jasper is white in its natural state and is stained with metallic oxide coloring agents.
The most common shade is pale blue, but dark blue, lilac, sage green, black, and yellow were also used.
The earliest jasper was stained throughout and was known as solid, whereas the later varieties were colored only on the surface and were known as dip.
Decorations, in the Roman style and usually white, were made in separate molds and applied to the body of the piece.
Objects made of jasper were varied and included vases, plaques, tableware, cameos, furniture mounts, and portrait medallions.
The finest examples of the medallions were modeled by the English sculptor John Flaxman and by Wedgwood's principal modeler, William Hackwood. Outstanding are Wedgwood's 1790 reproductions in jasper of the Portland Vase which was excavated from a tomb outside Rome in the early 17th century and one of which is now in the British Museum in London.
Jasperware is still produced by Wedgwood's in England today.

Green Jasperware

The familiar densely uniform stone ware in solid colors decorated in a contrasting hue was Josiah Wedgwood's most important contribution to ceramic art
Because of the popularity of the combination of a solid blue base with white relief ornamentation, the beginning collector identifies that color combination as Jasper, when in fact the pure jasper body is white

Cameos, designs carved into metal or stone, and small busts were produced. Vases, plaques and bough pots were crafted of the new material.

Portland Jasperware Vase

The crowning achievement and one that sealed jasperware as the most sought after decorative pottery in England and the United States was his reproduction of the famous Portland Vase in 1790 after four years of labor intensive trials.

THE IMITATORS

The importance of his discovery and the popularity of his designs produced a bunch of imitators seeking to capitalize on the new range.
Adams was the ware that most resembled Wedgwood's in all but color.
Others whose quality approached the original were Palmer, Wilson Neal and Hollins.
In the United States, Sevres brought out a range of blue porcelain decorated in white and Meissen brought out a range of blue porcelain with the necessary cast white embossing named Wedgwoodarbeit, literally Wedgewood Work.
The flattery of the imitators was certainly sincere.

RESUMPTION OF PRODUCTION

After Josiah's death in 1795 jasper pottery was at the height of fashion. By 1811 its popularity was starting to slow and the production of jasper products tailed off.
By 1817 vases were no longer being produced and by 1829 production in jasper had virtually ceased but experimentation continued.
In 1844 production resumed using jasper as a dip and for applied decoration to a new white porcelain body.
Solid jasper was not manufactured again until 1860 and even then the Wedgwood grandsons considered their new attempts as inferior to the Old Wedgwood produced by their grandfather.
Jasper production did not stop again until 1941 and World War II forced its abandonment.
Production started again in 1948 with a new combination of ingredients that more closely resembled Josiah's original.
Since that time production of newly designed jasper pieces has fueled the collectable market.
Christmas and Mother's day plates have been an example of marketing aimed directly at the collector.

Lusterware

Lusterware is earthenware with an opaque white tin glaze, fired once, then painted with metallic pigments and refired in a reduction kiln.
The designs reflected metallic hues of red, bronze, lime and yellow.

When potters migrated from Iraq to the western Muslim world in the 10th century, the luster technique moved with them.
As with tin glazes, lusterware ultimately influenced Europe by way of Moorish Spain.

Luster decorated earthenwares and porcelains come in many forms, the most common being the copper lustre, produced from gold.
This often completely covers the item.
Silver luster was also used in the same manner.

Other luster effects were also used, one type being built up by one or two washes of luster forming the scenic or other motif.

Gold Castle Lusterware


Lusterware Cream Sugar & Tray by Chikaramachi

An elegant lustreware and handpainted fine porcelain by Chikaramachi sugar and cream set with handled tray.
Beautifully decorated in blue and cream color with a floral design.
Marked Chikamarachi with a crown and laurel wreath, and the words Made in Japan.

Majolica


Majolica is an early type of tin glazed earthenware which was originally Hispano Moorish.
The name is thought to come from Majorca as the pottery was first imported to Italy from Spain via Majorca.
In more recent times, the name majolica has come to refer to enameled stoneware with high relief decoration made by Minton and others.

Majolica Canisters

Majolica Canisters with salt and pepper shakers

The traditional palette of colors from hundreds of years ago is still used to decorate these classic hand-painted designs from Spain.

The traditional palette of colors from hundreds of years ago is still used to decorate these classic hand-painted designs from Spain.

Marbled

A type of pottery obtained by mixing clays of various colors to imitate natural marbles or agate.
The working of marbled pottery can be traced back at least as far as the 1st century AD in Rome and samples of the pottery were produced as far away from Rome as China.

Marbled Pottery

Techniques included the use of decorative bands of white, brown, and gray marbled clay and tortoiseshell, obtained by marking glazes with blotches of manganese brown, laying the slabs of variously colored clay on each other and beating them out into a big mass which was called agate ware and mingling colored clay slips, which is liquid clay on the surface of a clay form.

Parian

During the 1840s a new hard, white unglazed porcelain, known as statuary porcelain and later as Parian from its marble like quality, was first produced by Spode.
It was praised as the ideal material for ornamental figures and sculptures and it became one of the great successes of Victorian ceramic art.
Minton produced some of the finest examples of Parian ware, and used it most successfully for sculptural pieces.
John Bell, the American Hiram Powers and Albert Carrier de Belleuse were among the sculptors who produced statuary for Minton, which were scaled down models of larger pieces by modern and past sculptors, and sometimes the material was used in combination with glazed and painted bone china for display pieces.
"The Dawning" by Gaylord Ho

Pate-sur-Pate


This labor intensive process involves building up a design in relief with layers of liquid slip, each one having to dry before the next is applied.
Using this technique, Solon and his apprentices modeled fine textured and see through clad maidens and tumbling cherubs on vases and plaques with a skill that was unmatched at any other factory.

MINTONS PATE SUR PATE OPEN BOWL

MINTONS PATE SUR PATE OPEN BOWL

Pearl Ware

One of Wedgwood's greatest contributions to European ceramics was his fine pearlware, which is an extremely pale creamware with a bluish tint to its glaze. Below are three examples of pearlware.

Late-18th century pearlware jug
Late-18th century pearlware jug, probably Swansea, barrel shape with out-turned foot and simple strap handle, printed in blue. Large floral sprays on either side of a verse "Sit down & spend a Social hour / In harmless mirth & fun / Let Friendship reign be just & Kind / And evil speak of none", all beneath a geometric border and with a different geometric border around the inside of the rim.

Porcelain

It is ceramics made from a mixture of china clay which is kaolin and china stone which is a feldspar.
Porcelain pottery was first made in China, which is why the common name was china.
Chinese porcelain is less vitrified which makes it softer than its modern European counterpart which was developed in Germany in the early 18th century.
There are three types of porcelain:

Hard paste

Hard paste porcelain is made from a mixture of china clay and china stone.
The use of china stone eliminates the need for the frit used in soft paste porcelain. The strength and whiteness of the porcelain was improved by aging the paste in store.
This type of porcelain often has a gray appearance and is extremely hard, it is fired at a much higher temperature than soft paste porcelain.
The ingredients melt and fuse into a dense strong body.
It will allow bright light to pass through it.
The colors lay on top of the glaze.



Hard paste porcelain recipe:

50 percent china clay
30 percent china stone
20 percent flint

Firing:

Biscuit temperature 1652 F to 900 C - 1832 F to 1000 C

Glost firing 2462 F to 1350 C to 2552 F - 1400 C

Soft paste

This type of porcelain was first made in China and is why it was called china.
Soft paste porcelain is soft and the body is granular since the ingredients do not melt together.
The glaze is clear and thick and sometimes gathers into pools.
The enamel colors sink into the glaze.
Glassy porcelain has no standard recipe but the body is made from glass, China stone and other ingredients.

Firing temperatures are:

Biscuit 2192 F - 1200 C to 2372 F - 1300 C Glost 1922 F - 1050 C to 2102F - 1150 C



Bone China


Stronger than hard paste porcelain and easier to manufacture and its ivory white appearance is created by adding bone ash to the ingredients for hard paste porcelain.



Redware


As the name suggests, these are reddish colored earthenwares that are glazed and sometimes not glazed.
This type of pottery is often associated with the Elers Brothers late 17th C, but several potters including Spode produced similar pottery well into the 18th century.

An Elers Brothers redware teapot and cover with European parcel-gilt mounts.

An Elers Brothers redware teapot and cover with European parcel-gilt mounts. Staffordshire. Circa 1695

Salt Glaze

Salt glaze in pottery is a glaze having the texture of orange peel which is formed on stoneware by throwing common salt into the kiln at the peak temperature.
Sodium from the salt combines with silica in the clay to form a glassy coating of sodium silicate.

Many thousands of tons of salt and seamen in proportion, which during the summer trade to the northern seas were employed in winter to carry materials for the salt glaze pottery and they had to pay annually a nearly 5,000 pound duty to government and from which a 1762 pound duty was taken also to Parliament for a turnpike road.
The glaze may be colorless or may be colored many shades of brown from iron oxide, blue from cobalt oxide or purple from manganese oxide.



Edward Walley salt glazed Staffordshire pitcher with heavily embossed Greek mythological figures, ferns, and leaves all the way around on a stippled background.



Salt glaze pitcher.
Cows are embossed on each side, in a blue salt glaze.



Salt glaze sugar bowl

Slipware

Earthenware pottery decorated with colored slip which is liquid clay and then glazed.
It was the main decorative technique in the 17th and mid 18th centuries before the introduction of enamels.
Slipware is pottery that has been treated in one way or another with semi liquid clay or slip.
Slip trailed decoration reached its peak in popularity during the reign of Charles II. The Toft family produced especially fine slipware such as large platters of red clay which were covered in white slip and then trailed with decoration, very often featuring the royal family, mermaids and pelicans.
Feathering and marbling were also carried out using slip, such as the owl shown below.



Slip painting was widely used in ancient Egyptian pottery, in which animal and scenic motifs are painted in white slip on a red body and in North American Indian wares.
Another form of slip decoration is the piping on trails of slip in the manner of cake icing, so that a design is achieved in lines of color, often white contrasting with the body of the vessel.
Further molding of the applied slip may be carried out or small blobs of slip dropped on and then molded or stamped with a raspberry, rosette or other shape.

James Brooke

Dotted and trailed slip decoration was probably never so well done as in 17th-century England, where the pottery workers depicted human, animal figures, stylized flowers and fluid linear patterns.
The technique demanded great dexterity and control.

Snowman-porcelain

A class of porcelain figures made from 1750 to 1752.
It was called snowman because of their thick white enveloping glaze and they include figures of human beings and animals.
They were richer and fuller than some of their later, colored counterparts.

Spatter Ware

In the United States, American and English pottery of about 1800 -1850 had patterns either spattered or sponged on.
The technique has a wider extent in pottery history, however, occurring for instance in England, about 1750.
About 1800 -1820 spatterware was made at the Wedgwood factory in England, sometimes specifically for sale in the United States, where it was also made.

Bennington Potters! http://www.benningtonpotters.com/

Stick spatter or spatterware cup plate.
The single plate has a red fern pattern.

Spatterware Sponge Cake Pan Spatterware mugs

Stangl sponge or spatter ware.

Staffordshire Figures

Type of pottery figurine made in Staffordshire from the 18th century.
The earliest figures made from about 1740 were simple but effective renderings of the human body in salt-glazed stoneware, the pew groups or figures seated on a high-backed settle.

Staffordshire Figures Staffordshire Figures

Later some particularly happy effects were used in clouded, lead glazed earthenware in which a subdued range of watery looking colors yellow, green, pale brown, and several grays was used.
Usually musicians, animals, shepherds, classical figures, character figures and portraits were in the collection.

Staffordshire Figures

Nineteenth century figures, mostly portraits of English and American personages, such as Queen Victoria and George Washington, were often animated and colorful but rather crude.
Most 19th century figures were theatrical in origin were very much sought after, but politicians, preachers, sportsmen and criminals were also popular subjects.

Stoneware


Pottery made from clay which has been fired at a higher temperature than earthenware.
The temperature is high enough to partially vitrify the materials and make the pottery so that it was not affected by liquids even when unglazed.

Blue flax Stoneware

Stoneware is extremely strong and it will not allow light to pass through it.
Because stoneware is nonporous, it does not require a glaze, but when a glaze is used it serves a purely decorative function.

Stoneware Bowl and Jar

Dark colored stoneware is made from buff, brown and red clays without any added ingredients.
Light colored stoneware was made from the 18th century from the following ingredients :
25% ball clay
25% china clay
35% flint
15% china stone
Firing: 2192 F - 1200 C to 2372 F - 1300 C.
There is usually only one firing, but if a glost firing is required it will be at about 1922 F to 1050 C.

The majority of current glazed stonewares are salt glazed.
They were originally made in the Rhineland from the 15th century and in England from the 17th.
In 18th century England, salt glazed stoneware was displaced by lead glazed earthenware, creamware, porcelain and by Wedgwood's unglazed stonewares and black basalt and white jaspers.

Tortoiseshell

Earthenware with a variegated surface color made in England, in the 18th century. It was a subdivision of the clouded agate pottery made from about 1755 to1760 at Stoke-on-Trent, especially by the famous potter Thomas Whieldon.
The tortoiseshell effect was obtained by covering the body of light color with manganese oxides put on with a sponge.

The different clouded effects were obtained by treating the lead glaze with a different oxide, only that with brown blotching it is properly called tortoiseshell, though the term is often used loosely to include multicolored clouded pottery in general.

Transfer ware

The transfer printing process began in 1756.
Transfer printing is a process by which a pattern or design is etched onto a copper or other metal plate.
The plate is then inked and the pattern is transferred to a special tissue.
The inked tissue is then laid onto the already bisque fired ceramic item, glazed and fired again.
Initially patterns were transferred to the pottery after glazing, but the ink often wore off, and that is why under printing was born.
Transfer items have a crisp almost decal look about them.
If you look closely you can often see the place where the transfer design ends.
Often these are the areas where the pattern doesn't quite match, like wallpaper.

Blue Transferware

Particularly well known transfer patterns above are Blue Willow and Indian tree
This is Indian Tree transfer ware.
Indian Tree Transferware

Transfer printing was developed in response to a call by English consumers for less expensive, mass produced wares.
Customers wanted decorations on their previously plain kitchen wares.
Initially the patterns were oriental in flavor, as Chinese blue was a favorite of the time.
Prior to the development of transfer printing only the most wealthy English could afford complete dinnerware sets as every dish had been carefully hand painted by an artist.
This was a labor intensive and costly process.
Transfer printing allowed hundreds of sets of dinnerware to be produced in a fraction of the time it would have taken to hand paint these items, and for a fraction of the cost.

Colors

Transfer printing was originally produced in one color items only.
Some time later the technology was developed to allow double or triple color transfers.
This meant that the rim of a plate may be one color and the center design may be another.
Another method of decoration was that a single color transfer item may be hand painted inside the confines of the design like petals and leaves and then glazed. This was called clobbering.
It is thought that clobbering was developed in response to the cry by out of work artist who had been replaced by transfer printing.
Later a process called poly chroming was used.
This produced very bright almost enameled looking colors with a high glaze.

Single color transfers are found in many hues of blue, red called pink, black called jet, brown often called sienna, purple called Mulberry and green.
More rare are yellow transfers.
Brown is a very common color and is the least expensive.
Blue is the most sought after color and tends to be the most expensive.
Flow Blue was originally a mistake.
The cobalt pigment in the decorative glaze could not withstand the heat of the second firing and ran.
Thus Flow Blue pieces have that runny, blurry quality about them.
While initially this was a manufacturer's error, Flow Blue is the most popular transfer color today.
Transfer designs are sometimes combined with other glaze treatments such as luster.
Often you will see ceramic items that have a luster glaze but also incorporate a transfer design.
Below is a brown, a flow blue and black transferware.

Designs

Transfer designs are varied and wide, oriental patterns were quite popular.
These often included scenes of Asian people and sometimes pagodas.
The Romantic scenes are probably the most identifiable.
These frequently carry images of a woman in a long dress with a parasol and perhaps a suitor by her side.
Often there are gardens and gazebos involved.
Commemorative wares depict scenes of historical significance like royal coronations or the launching of ships.
Pastoral items tend to include scenes of rural life like farm, cattle and mountain scenes.
Then there are the floral items and the novelty or juvenile items.
Children's items were often developed in miniatures or children's sets and may depict children at play, trains, animals and the like.

Motherhood and aging ain't for sissies



Tips - Definitions - Clay Projects - Pottery Gallery - Pottery Tools - Glazes - All About Clay

Have you ever come up with a good idea while working with your handmade pottery and thought that you would like to share it with others? You have? Well, why not send it to us and we will add it to the tips page for all to see.

Handmade pottery can be a very gratifying hobby that produces fun and satisfying results. For many people it's an enjoyable release that is created by working an inanimate mound of clay into a beautiful work of art that you made through your artistic abilities.

The best way of starting out is to take a few lessons from Youtube. You will probably waste quite a bit in materials when you first get started. Figuring out how to truly make handmade pottery correctly and shape into what you want it to be can be quite an ordeal. The different tools that a normal shop will have can be fun to try. You will soon see which ones you like to use the most and then when you are ready you will know which ones to buy.

With the help of the internet, you can now purchase most if not all of your ceramic and pottery tools and supplies online. We are located far from any well supplied dealers and yet working with reliable ceramic and pottery suppliers online has allowed us to recieve most of our orders within a timely manner.

When you get all set up, just enjoy the hobby and have fun at it. Some people get pretty serious and start selling their creations at craft fairs and small stores, but others just like to create items for themselves, relatives, and friends. Whichever kind of handmade pottery you desire to endeavor, enjoy the hobby and have fun doing it.

Store Home

DeerLake Store
Outback-Hat from the Deerlake Store
Stash It, Smash It, Crush It,
Tye Dye It, Fly Tye It, Simplify It,
Buy It, the OutBack Hat.

Pottery Magic HomeContact UsAbout
Pottery FAQTerms of Service ~ Terms of Use and Legal Notice
Privacy Policy and Security StatementCopyright/IP Policy
Copyright 2001 - 2017 All rights reserved. DeerLake Designs LLC